Description of problem

Mumba: Multi-faceted metrics for ICS Business Risk Analysis

The Mumba team gathers experts from multiple backgrounds, familiar with multi-disciplinary settings in computer science, security, industrial control systems, risk management, and organisational ethnography.

Decision metrics raise a number of challenges in the context of ICS security:

  • Dichotomy between metrics (CIA: Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability; SRA: Safety, Reliability, Availability) and business risk analysis criteria (cost business continuity, reputation).
  • Intrinsic limitations of metrics: non-universal across domains, situations and organisations, metrics hide decision-critical context and knowledge, and they do not capture second order impact in time and space — critical in cyber-physical environments such as ICS.
  • Risk is a social construct depending on technical, social and organisational context, tacit knowledge and common practices.

The objectives of the project are the following:

  • Design novel multi-faceted metrics enriching current metrics and practices, capturing hidden complexity and incorporating social and organisational factors.
  • Design novel methodologies and practices to achieve a sound, context-aware articulation between business risk and particular ICS contexts.
  • Situate the metrics and the methodology in realistic use cases and scenarios from our industry partners.

The project is following different complementary approaches:

  • Field work with actors of the sector and development of a serious game as a basis for ethnographic analysis of risk perceptions and risk representations.
  • Analysis of a body of case studies using novel multi-disciplinary techniques.
  • Formalisation of facets for the extension of metrics and design of the underlyingmethodology.
  • Cross-checking of the applicability of the contributions with respect to real-world events.


Dr Ben Shreeve
Dr Ben ShreeveResearch Associate
Ben is a research associate with Security Lancaster. Ben’s research explores how organisations make cyber-security decisions and investments. His PhD research explores how the decision making and creativity of co-located and virtual teams differs.
Dr Alberto Zanutto
Dr Alberto ZanuttoResearch Associate
Dr Karolina Follis
Dr Karolina FollisFaculty Fellow - Security Lancaster
I am a political anthropologist interested in borders, citizenship and non-citizenship, human rights and new security technologies. I study the European Union, in particular its governance of justice and home affairs, including immigration and asylum.
Professor David Hutchison
Professor David HutchisonDistinguished Professor
Dr Jeremy Busby
Dr Jeremy BusbySenior Lecturer
Research Interests:

Risk analysis and risk management, systemic failure, human and organisational error.

Professor Awais Rashid
Professor Awais RashidProfessor, Co-Director
My research spans software engineering and cyber security. I focus on novel software modularity techniques that underpin software that is adaptable, evolvable and resilient in the face of changes and the volatile nature of user requirements and behaviours in the modern digital world.



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